WHAT IS IT: The so called "Golden Ring of Russia" is a symbolical ring connecting historical towns and cities to the North-West of Moscow. They represent 1,000 years of rich Russian history written in stone and wood, from a 850-year old church in Rostov to a 19th-century log house in the Suzdal's open air museum. Each of the "golden" towns once played an important role in the history of Russia and was conected in one way or another with famous historical figures such as Alexander Nevsky, Ivan the Terrible, Peter the Great and many others. If you would like to see true, patriarchal Russia, to experience the grandeur of nature and the magnificence of ancient towns then a Golden Ring tour is well worth taking. It is one of the most popular routes among Russian and foreign lovers of old Russian history and architecture.
WHAT TO SEE: The cities and towns of the Golden Ring are listed here in alphabetical order:
Aleksandrov (founded in 1530, population 68,000) - The town is situated 100 km from Moscow on the crossway of ancient roads from the largest historic centers of Russia - Vladimir and Suzdal, Rostov and Yaroslavl, Sergiev Posad and Pereyaslavl-Zalessky. In 1564- 1581 the town was the residence of Ivan the Terrible. In Aleksandrov the tsar proclaimed the establishment of his select, terror-inspiring corps, the Oprichniki and signed the harsh conditions of the truce with Poland and Sweden after losing the long war with Livonia. From Aleksandrov Ivan the Terrible led his army of Oprichniki to strike at the big trade centres of Novgorod, Pskov, Klin and Tver. Here the cruel tsar killed his son in a rage and soon after that left Aleksandrov forever coming back to Moscow. The very first in Russia publishing house was established in Aleksandrov in 1576. One of the leading textile manufacturing centres in Russia in the 19th century.
Bogolubovo (founded in 990, population 4,000) - a tiny quiet town near the city of Vladimir. The town was named after the Russian prince Andrey Bogolubsky (God-loving) who built the first fortified settlement here in 1165. It was a strategically important point overlooking the Kliazma River. Tourists can see remains of the Andery Bogolubsky's residence including some residential chambers of the 12th century and the beautiful Church of the Intercession of the Virgin on the Nerl (1165) which is considered to be one of the finest specimens of old Russian architecture.
Gorohovets (founded in 1239, population 30,000) - The town was founded under Vladimir prince Andrey Bogolubsky. The town is picturesquely settled on the high bank of the Klyazma River. Played role as a fortified forepost until 1600-s. Reached its developmental pick in the 17-th century as a local centre for blacksmithing, textile-making and making of leather and also as an agricultural trade centre for grains and flax.
Gus-Khrustalny (founded in 1756, population 80,000) - Over 200 years ago a merchant built here the first workshop of glass casting. Today the town is one of the district centers of Vladimir region, well-known in Russia and abroad as the national center of glassmaking. The name Gus-Krustalny can be literally translated as Chrystalline Goose. The old part of the town is a workmen's settlement of 1900-s. with its own Church of St. Joachim of 1816.
Kholuy (founded 1650, population 1,000) - The village of Kholui did not begin producing lacquered miniatures until the 1930s, and though iconography had been an important trade in the region in previous centuries, Kholui was never bound to any particular artistic tradition. Rather, Kholui miniatures share some traits with both Palekh and Mstera art, yet maintain a distinctive lyrical quality of their own. As in Palekh and Mstera, Kholui artists use egg tempera paints. Kholui paintings tend to be brighter than Mstera's, though like Mstera, the pigments used are opaque and the background is usually fully painted. Sometimes, as with Palekh miniatures, Kholui miniatures will include some fine gold and/or silver ornamentation within the painting, and Kholui artists can create fantastic border ornaments on par with those of Palekh. Since 1960-s products of Kholuy's 200 artists have been widely represented and promoted internationally.
Kostroma (founded in 1213, population 300,000) - In the past Kostroma was known as "the flax capital of the north"; it supplied Europe with the world's finest sail-cloth. The city has been also called as the "cradle of the Romanov dynasty". Mikhail Romanov, the first of the Romanov dynasty, left the Ipatievsky Monastery for Moscow in 1613 to become tsar of Russia. During the Polish intervention in the turbulent years of the early seventeenth century Kostroma was a significant stronghold for the resistance movement. The city is spreaded on the left bank of the Volga river. Nowadays Kostroma is an important industrial center (textile, metal works), a capital city of the Kostroma province.
Mstera (founded in 1628, population 6,000) - the town takes its name from the little Msterka River, which flows through it merging with the Kliyazma. It is in Vladimir Region, but not far from the border with Ivanovo Region, south of Palekh and Kholui, in breathtakingly beautiful countryside - the one that forms the backdrop to its paintings. Mstera was a respected center of icon production until the trade was banned after the Revolution of 1917. Since then its artists has been creating world-famous masterpieces in the form of lacquered miniatures. In keeping with the traditions of iconography, egg tempera paints are still used. The landscape is of central importance to the painting with people and objects integrated to the setting. Mstera paintings are frequently larger than those from the other schools but some fine miniatures are also produced and because of their rarity are highly prized. Typical themes include exquisite floral designs with lacy gold ornamentation, the traditional fairy tales, traditional activities and events such as a winter festival, and sometimes portraiture.
Murom (founded 862, population 145,000) - one of the oldest Russian cites stretched along the left bank of the Oka river. The town's name originates from "muroma", one of the Finno-Ugric tribes lived here 15 centuries ago. Every Russian knows the name Ilya Muromets. He was a mythical epic hero defending people of Russia and later became a synonym of superior physical and spiritual power and integrity, dedicated to the protection of the Homeland. There is a monument to Ilya Muromets built on a river bank of the Oka river in Murom. The town survived three Mongol invasions. In the 17th century Murom became an important centre of various crafts - building, painting, sawing. There are three working monasteries in Murom.
Palekh (founded 1600, population 6,000) - the village is situated about 400km (250 miles) from Moscow in the Ivanovo region. In the 15th century it was one of the first centers of icon drawing trade. After the 1917 communist coup, when the icon business went down, Palekh masters tried to decorate wooden toys, dishes, porcelain and glass. But the most interesting way turned out to be painting black-lacquered boxes made of papier-mache. These days the name of Palekh is nearly synonymous with the art of Russian lacquer. Palekh artists are generally regarded as the most highly trained of the Russian miniature painters. Famous for highly detailed miniatures with elaborate ornamentation, the village of Palekh has a long artistic tradition. Like their icon painting forebears, today's Palekh artists use egg tempera paints and paint in the Byzantine style. Favored themes are the Russian fairy tales, the famous Russian troika (three horse sleigh), and scenes of life in the countryside. The art of Palekh miniatures expresses the true national character. Many examples of Palekh art have received recognition at international exhibitions and have become world-known.
Pereslavl-Zalesskiy (founded in 1152, population 45,000) - one of the oldest Russian towns, the birthplace of the famous Russian prince Alexander Nevsky, who defeated an army of German knights in 1242. Zalessky means "behind the woods". That is where, behind the dense forests, ancient Slavic tribes retreated seeking refuge from hostile nomads coming from the South-East. The town is situated on the shores of the huge Pleshcheyevo lake. The town is also connected with the name of the famed Russian tsar-reformer Peter the Great who in 1680-s practiced his skills in ship-building making over 100 boats and sail vessels, who entertained himself with first Russian navy exercises on the Pleshcheyevo lake.
Ples (founded in 1410, population 4,000) - this quet little historical town is located on the bank of the mighty and beautiful Volga river. During the reign of Ivan the Terrible Ples was one of the largest river firsh suppliers to the kings' court. In the 18-19th centuries the town became known as a popular resort and was often called "Russian Switzerland" for the beauty of its scenery. Numerous Russian artists including the famous master of landscapes Levitan used to come here to work.
Rostov Veliky (Rostov the Great, founded in 862, population 40,000) - another pearl of ancient Russian culture. In old Russia only two towns were called veliky (great). One was Novgorod, the famous trade centre of the Russia's north, the other Rostov. The Principality of Rostov-Suzdal-Vladimir was one of the strongest political divisions of Kievan Rus. It controlled all the major rivers in northeast Rus including the Moskva, Oka, Kliazma, and Volga. In the 12th century Rostov grew to equal Kiev and Novgorod in size and importance. It was made the seat of an Orthodox Metropolitan (Head of Russian Church) in 1587, and served as an important commercial center in the 16-19th centuries, one of the wealthiest in the country, so it could afford to hire the very best builders, decorators and stone-cutters. Modern Rostov is a sleepy old town with some magnificent buildings next to the shallow Nero lake.
Sergiev Posad (founded in 1345, population 115,000) - the spiritual center of Russia, residence of the Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church, where the remains of the first national saint, Sergei Radonezh, rests. In the heart of Sergiev Posad is a well-preserved splendid architectural ensemble of over 50 historical buildings, as well as magnificent art collections including old Russian painting and the treasures in the vaults of the former Trinity Monastery.
Suzdal (founded in 1024, population 12,000) - this little quiet town is a real gem, one of the most beautiful in the Golden Ring collection of citeis and towns. In the 11th century Suzdal became the very first forepost of Christianity in the North-Eastern Russia and significantly affected the religious life in Russia until the end of 19 century. The town was destroyed by Mongols in 1238. Later Suzdal became the capital city of Russian prince Yury Dolgoruky who is considered to be the founder of Moscow. The second destruction of the town came with the Polish invasion in the 17th century. Here you can find over 100 church and secular buildings dating from the mid-12th to the mid-19th century crowded into a area of 9 square km.
Tutaev (founded in 1283, population 45,000) - is an old little town sprawling on both banks of the Volga river. Tutaev (formerly known as Romanovo-Borisoglebsk) is divided by the Volga river into two parts. The former town Romanov is located on the left high bank of the river, the former town Borisoglebsk is on the right sloping one. Romanov was called after the Russian prince Roman of Uglich who was the founder of this town, Borisoglebsk got its name in connection with the Church of St. Boris and St. Gleb erected there in the 15th century. The towns were united under the new name Romanovo-Borisoglebsk in 1822. In 1918 the town's name was changed to Tutaev in honour of the Red Army hero who was killed during the Civil war .
Uglich (founded in 937, population 38,000) - the town was built on a major trade route. In its history Uglich has survived destruction by the Mongols and lived through the devastation of fires and plagues. Uglich is famous for Russia's darkest secret - the death of young Prince Dimitri, son of Ivan the Terrible who is often called Tsarevich (a heir to the throne) Dmitry. The Tsarevich, a sickly boy, was the last of the Rurik dynasty. While playing with a knife in the yard he stabbed himself by accident or was stabbed by an assassin allegedly sent by Boris Godunov, his competitor for the throne. The center of the town also is a historical and architectural landmark. The streets are wide, with various churches standing side by side along the road. These churches vary in size and have domes and belfries of different shapes and designs, all of which add to the charm of this small town. Uglich is known in Russia for simple-designed and reliable watches. The local factory, which makes beautiful women's watches decorated with special "Finift" paintings on porcelain which are incorporated into the bands of the watches.
Vladimir (founded in 1108, population 400,000) - one of the oldest Russian cities, was founded by the Russian Prince Vladimir Monomakh on the banks of the Kliazma river. The city really blossomed in the 12th century during the reign of Prince Andrey Bogolubsky, who strengthened its defences, welcomed architects, icon-painters, jewellers from other countries, built new palaces and churches so magnificent that travelers compaired them with the ones in the "mother of all Russian cities"- Kiev. Until the middle of 14th century the city had been an administrative, cultural and religious center for North-Eastern Russia. During the Mongol invasion in the 13th century Vladimir was beseiged, looted and almost totally destroyed. Presently the city is a capital of the Vladimir province.
Yaroslavl (founded in 1010, population 600,000 ) - as the legend goes it was founded by the famous Russian prince Yaroslav the Wise as a fortified settlement on the Volga river. After a huge fire of 1658 that turned most of the city into ruins, Jaroslavl was rebuilt in stone and reached the peak of its architectural development with palaces and churches richly decorated with beautiful frescoes and ornaments thus earning the title "Florence of Russia". The first Russian professional theater was established here by Volkov in 1750. Since the 18th century Jaroslavl has been an important industrial center. Today it is a quiet metropolitan city, one of Russia's largest regional centres, a capital of the Jaroslav province and one of the most beautiful cities of old Russia.
Yuriev-Polsky (founded in 1152, population 20,000) - was founded by the Prince Yury Dolgoruky (who also founded Moscow in 1147) and named after himself. The second word "Polsky" means "among the fields" as it is situated in the heart of fertile and flat Suzdal land. These beautiful landscapes inspired the great painters and writers such as Repin, Tyutchev, Odoevsky, Soloukhin. Local textile centre since the 18th century.
HOW TO GET THERE: By plane to Moscow. From Moscow you can travel the cities and towns of the Golden Ring either by a tour bus or by a river cruise ship. The last option limits the number of towns that you can visit as they have to be situated close to the Volga river. We recommend you to take a bus tour for 3 to 10 days depending on your stamina and level of interest in Russian history. A typical 3-4-day tour from Moscow covers up to 7 cities and towns of the Golden Ring. You travel during the day time in a comfortable bus with a well-trained English-speaking guide and spend nights at hotels with Western-class service (usually- 3 star). The Golden Ring tour can be perfectly combined with 2-3 day program in Moscow. Almost every major travel agency in Moscow sells Golden Ring tours and it is much cheaper to buy them on the spot in Russia then to purchase a tour included into a vacation package from Europe or overseas. Communication is not a problem, these days all personnel in respectable agencies in Russia speak English.
WHEN TO GO: The best season to travel to Russia is summer, from June to August, the warmest time of the year there. Rains are usual during summers, do not forget to pack your umbrella. Weather can be unpredictably cold, even in the European part of Russia, so take some warm clothing. You can check next week weather forecast for Moscow here.
TRAVEL TIPS: A passport and a Russian visa are required to travel in or transit through Russia. To learn more about how to obtain Russian visa please visit Russian Embassy website. Without a visa, travelers cannot register at hotels and may be required to leave the country immediately via the route by which they entered, at the cost of the traveler. Russian customs officers strictly follow document regulations so travelers are advised to have all papers in order. It is also recommended that additional copies of passport and visa be kept in a safe place in case of loss or theft. Elderly travelers and those with existing health problems may be at risk due to inadequate medical facilities. Doctors and hospitals often expect immediate cash/dollar payment for health services at Western rates so supplemental medical insurance with specific overseas coverage is very useful. Travelers should be certain that all immunizations are up-to-date, especially for diphtheria and typhoid. Quality of tap water varies from city to city but normally is quite poor. Only boiled or bottled water should be drunk throughout Russia. Crime against foreigners in Russia continues to be a problem, especially in major cities. Pick pocketing, assaults, and robberies occur. Foreigners who have been drinking alcohol are especially vulnerable to assault and robbery in or around night clubs or bars, or on their way home. Robberies may occur in taxis shared with strangers. Be aware that public washrooms are difficult to find, and usually you have to pay there. To use a public phone you will need a token or local card. International calls can not be made from street phones. Your mobile phone will work in Moscow and Saint Petersburg but seldom in regional cities. Taxi fee must be discussed with a driver before a journey. In the major cities you can rent a car if you do not mind fairly rugged road conditions, a few hassles finding petrol, getting lost now and then and paying high rent price. Public transport in Russia is quite good, cheap and easy to use though sometimes overcrowded. Restaurants seldom have a menu in English. Tipping is expected but not mandatory. Signs in English are common on the streets of Moscow and other big cities. In large cities it is not hard to find a passerby who can answer your questions in Engish. Electricity throughout Russia is 220 volt/50 hz. The plug is the two-pin thin European standard.
We wish you a safe and nice trip!
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